Formation, Structural and Morphological Characteristics of Porous Zn/ZnO and Zn/ZnO/NiO Nanosystems
A. S. Kornyushchenko, S. T. Shevchenko, V. V. Natalich, V. I. Perekrestov
Sumy State University, 2 Rymsky-Korsakov Str., UA-40007 Sumy, Ukraine
Received: 17.06.2020; final version - 16.11.2020. Download: PDF
The paper presents technological features of the formation of two-layer Zn/ZnO and three-layer Zn/ZnO/NiO porous systems. At first, the structure formation mechanism of porous Zn systems under near-equilibrium stationary conditions is described together with some aspects of the technological process control using self-organization of the condensed vapours small supersaturations. Prior to obtaining Zn porous systems, two-layer contact pads based on Cr and Au were deposited on laboratory glass substrates using two magnetron sputterers. The total thickness of the contact pads is 0.8 $\mu$m. Contact pads are pre-deposited because the mechanism of porous Zn structures nucleation and their further growth depends on the nature of the substrate surface. At the next stage, three types of porous Zn layers are obtained on the contact pads. The Zn porous structures in the form of linked nanowires are formed upon the realization of extremely weak supersaturations. The transition to the formation of porous structures based on bulk crystals is observed with a gradual increase of supersaturation. The possibility of reducing the total resistance of the multilayer systems by means of the incomplete oxidation of Zn basic porous layers or by depositing ZnO and NiO films is shown, which is important for the practical application of the obtained layers to create electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The phase and elemental compositions, as well as the structural and morphological characteristics of the Zn/ZnO and Zn/ZnO/NiO layers, are optimized using the data obtained by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray phase analysis.
Key words: porous nanostructures, magnetron sputtering, nanowires, multilayer systems, Zn/ZnO nanosystems, Zn/ZnO/NiO nanosystems.
PACS: 52.77.Dq, 68.47.De, 68.47.Gh, 81.05.Rm, 81.15.Cd, 82.47.Aa
Citation: A. S. Kornyushchenko, S. T. Shevchenko, V. V. Natalich, and V. I. Perekrestov, Formation, Structural and Morphological Characteristics of Porous Zn/ZnO and Zn/ZnO/NiO Nanosystems, Metallofiz. Noveishie Tekhnol., 43, No. 5: 613—627 (2021) (in Ukrainian)